Jul 2, 2020 – Land of Stone and Light

After 200 miles of this view, we arrive at our exit that leads us into the Land of Stone and Light.

Driving 200 miles through open space on a straight westerly path void of most anything except cattle herds and Wall Drug billboards hypnotized us. As we passed one cattle field after another, I knew we were getting closer to something so severely different from this grass prairie landscape that it was difficult to imagine how it could be so hidden away from our highway view or how it could develop out of such flatness.

The 6-foot concrete prairie dog greets us as we drove south toward Badlands National Park.

Finally, we turned onto exit 131. From there, highway 240 continued south through more open prairie. Everything looked the same except for the 12-ft, 6-ton concrete prairie dog that stands in front of the Ranch Store not far from the entrance to Badlands National Park.

Arriving at the park entrance, flat prairies dominate the view. Where oh where are those Badlands?

At last, we arrived at the north east entrance to the park. Still, the prairie land prevailed as we continued driving, now officially within National Park. But then in a blink of the eye, we were transported to a completely different world; a landscape so strangely unique as to attract a million visitors each year. A land that compelled Frank Lloyd Wright to describe it as follows, “ “How is it that we, toward the Atlantic, have heard so much about the Grand Canyon and so little of this, when this is so much more miraculous?” We were entering the ‘land of stone and light’.

About 3 miles from the interstate, at last the Badlands begins to reveal itself.
Are we still on Earth? This looks otherworldly.

With our 33-foot fifth wheel, we normally stay outside of national parks and enter one only after we unhitch and leave the home parked. This time, our campground (Badlands/White River KOA) location necessitated us to pull the RV through a portion of Badlands National Park. Thanks to the National Park Service that maintains a scenic highway, we were given a generous preview to the oddly formed rocks that radiate a mesmerizing beauty ever to behold. I witnessed this scene as Vivian drove the 11 miles from the park entrance to the campground. While pulling the RV slowly up and down grades through a dense outcropping of layered and jagged sandstone cliffs and pinnacles, my jaw remained dropped. Like a kid walking into a candy store, I became overwhelmed with anticipation of photographing those exquisite rock formations against a brilliant evening or morning light.

After driving 11 miles through the Badlands landscape, we came to our campground located next to the White River where trees predominate. Nice to have that shade as temperatures rose above 90 each day.
Our campground was located in Pine Ridge Reservation, outside of national park boundaries. Each day we drove this road to the park. Check out the slide show below for images shot from this roadside location.

Our campground lays adjacent to the White River near the tiny community of Interior. Located within Pine Ridge Reservation of the Oglala Lakota tribe, we are a short distance from the national park boundaries. The fact that we were surrounded by Indian land made it difficult to ignore history and the current state of affairs among the Oglala Lakota people. Pine Ridge encompasses one county in its entirety and partially two others, three of the poorest counties in the country. The reservation contains the southern portion of Badlands National Park and since the time of COVID, has been entirely shut down. I could not help but think of the tragic consequences of foreign viruses introduced to native Americans by Europeans immigrants. Indian tribes throughout the country were shutting down completely due to COVID and in the case of the Pine Ridge Reservation, this necessarily closed a large portion of the national park. But most of the park remained open.

From our campground, there was a main route and this back one to enter into the national park. I liked this backroad entrance as it got me on location more quickly.

Being inside the Badlands National Park requires all your senses and pondering the history of its native people rarely came into thought as I photographed and took in the scenes. I simply wanted to capture the moment. Later while staying in the nearby Black Hills, Native American history would come into focus for us. In the meantime, I simply wanted to capture the stone and light. And the park service makes it so easy to do so. The highway gives visitors unprecedented access to the Badlands with continuous sweeping views, opportunities to hike short distances easily through canyons and views of wildlife including bison, bighorn sheep and prairie dogs.

The scenic drive offers several overlooks and parking areas to pull-off safely. I didn’t have to go far to capture the Badlands.
A common scene at an overlook parking lot. Pantaloons are quite fashionable in these parts.
So easy to see the Badlands!

The word “Badlands” comes from the Oglala Lakota description of the harsh landscape as ‘mako sica’ which translates to ‘land bad’. The 244,000 acres of national park use to be under water. When the water receded millions of years ago, perhaps as the Rockies were formed and forced it out, it left behind sediment deposits that comprise the rock formations. Basically, the Badlands terrain was shaped by water. On the Badlands scenic drive starting at the northeast entrance and driving west to the Pinnacles entrance, we witnessed dramatic change in landscape beginning with tall jagged pinnacles that look like castles to colorful rolling mounds of rock interspersed with grasses, to flat open grasslands pock marked by prairie dog holes.

Red X marks the location where we camped for five nights.
Continue on Sage Creek Road to see Robert’s Prairie Dog town.

And we saw wildlife. As with the Everglades, the crown jewels of the park are the wildlife. Instead of an alligator near the road, it was a bison. Herds of bighorn sheep grazed in large numbers on the grassy prairies instead of flocks of wading birds in the shallow waters. The elusive prairie dogs contained in large underground communities reminded me of the hermit crabs that populate the tidal zones of the gulf coast. Wildlife viewings are reminders that these wilderness areas are not ours alone. The Badlands is not just to photograph, it is home to much life. Check out this next slide show for some wildlife images.

The animals of course define much of the Badlands, but for me, it was the light and the exquisite power it has over the rocks. The rocks themselves have so much character and all one needs to do is drive through the park to witness how that character changes profoundly. Amazed at how bright it is outdoors well before sunrise, we drove a backroad from Interior into the park 45 minutes before the sun peeked over the horizon. We pulled off at a lookout point to view the magic as the sun eventually lit up the rocks. Meanwhile, beautiful clouds formed in the sky and soon they were painted with pastel blues and pinks. Eye candy everywhere, Vivian used her artistic eye to point out scenes to me so I would not miss out. With the changing light and clouds, we spent an hour in one location as I created several compositions while the clouds and sun did what they do best. Only one time did a car pass by. We had the Badlands to ourselves and it was extraordinary.

One of the best photography days ever. See slide show below for photos from Badlands National Park.

The early morning scene was a hard act to follow but as the day progressed, it just got better. Such is the Badlands. Just wait a second and it will change dramatically before your eyes. Drive a short distance and another world will appear. We left the pull-off site and continued west on the scenic drive. It was early enough in the day that cars were few and far between. Clouds remained prominent in the sky creating an everchanging show of light.

Slide across to see the difference. Two images shot within 1 minute. This is what I am talking about when I describe how the light dramatically changes the Badlands landscape. See slide show below for more images.

This is what the Badlands were to us. Yes, we did drive out of the park to see the infamous Wall Drugstore, but only from our truck. And we did visit the Minuteman Missile National Historic Site but our self-guided tour lasted only minutes. These were meager diversions eclipsed by stone and light. On day six, we left our campground and pulled the RV one last time through Badlands National Park before returning to I-90. Once on the interstate, the Badlands was again hidden away as if it never existed, somewhere beyond the grass prairie that lay out in front of us. Soon, we would enter yet another enchanting land. Black Hills, here we come.

Jul 1, 2020 – The Quirky, Creepy, Beautiful and Magnificent South Dakota

“Skeleton Man Walking Skeleton Dinosaur” as seen from I-90 in South Dakota. The creation of Clarence Hullinger. (photo from atlasobscura.com)

South Dakota has the world’s largest ball of invisible twine – I know because I’ve seen it. No doubt, every state in the union has idiosyncratic attractions; some historically meaningful and others just plain idiosyncratic. And as we have happily discovered during our RV journeys, many are quirky art installations installed along highways – such as the ball of twine – for the sole purpose of entertaining travelers passing through.

Porter Sculpture Park, the creation of Wayne Porter as seen from I-90 in South Dakota. (photo from Google Maps)

Sometimes, the most interesting feature of a roadside attraction is the story behind it, which most travelers will miss & at best, may wonder for a moment as they whizz by at 80 mph. Take for example, this one. Over fifty years ago in a small town of about 200 people somewhere in South Dakota, an inspired young boy created his first sculpture in his father’s blacksmith shop. Only 10 years of age, the boy carved a small bull’s head from iron using a cutting torch and drilled holes in it so he could wear it as a necklace. By age 12, the boy learned from his father to weld which inspired him to create larger sculptures from metal scraps. After high school graduation, the young sculptor left home, earned a college degree (in political science and history, not art) and dropped out of law school. He then returned to his hometown and became a vegetarian sheep farmer. In his spare time, he indulged in his art which evolved into very large metal sculptures. Meet Wayne Porter, the sole creator of an unusual and intriguing roadside attraction, Porter Sculpture Park located next to I-90, 30 miles west of Sioux Falls.

The artist, Wayne Porter. On the sculpture of the hand with a butterfly on its finger tip and a thorn in its palm, “How pain and joy can coexist, but neither hang around forever,” Porter said. “Butterflies fly away, thorns are pulled.” (photo from detourart.com)

What often draws me to art is the variety of critiques it elicits. And if ever there was a venue for roadside art critics, it is Trip Advisor. Traveling art critics now come in cars and RVs between Memorial Day and Labor Day to visit Wayne and his art. Here’s what they are saying about his sculptures:

  • “Absolutely stunning large sculptures”
  • “Artwork ranging from the whimsical to the surreal”
  • “Definite sci-fi influence to the artist’s designs, but imaginative, creative, clever and quite good”
  • “I think it’s just some guy whose artistic impulse was uncontrollable”
  • “Quirky and fun, dark and introspective”
  • “It is nothing but a bunch of creepy statues on side of road”
  • “Some of the sculptures are very blatantly satanic and can creep out anyone even in broad daylight”
Wayne Porter’s sense of humor on display at Porter Sculpture Park.
“It’s the same size as a head on Mt Rushmore. I think it’s the world’s biggest. I haven’t heard anybody say they’ve got a bigger one, and if they did have a bigger one, I wouldn’t argue with them because they’re crazy.” Wayne Porter

Wayne’s artistic vision is BIG, as in 60-ft tall metal sculpture big. At the beginning, he put his large art on display in his tiny hometown because there was no other place to put it. It was not well received – maybe not so much for the size, but because the sculptures appear to be inspired by cartoon fantasies with a dark surrealistic edge to them. Not everyone’s cup of tea. The town’s reaction to Wayne’s art was not lukewarm and probably rose to hysteria as Wayne has been quoted to say “You haven’t lived ‘til you’ve been called a satanic pornographer.” As a result, in 2000 Wayne moved his large sculptures to a piece of family-owned cattle-grazing land. He gave up his sheep and devoted his life to Porter Sculpture Park.

And he is beholden to no one. He creates whatever he wants including a 7-ton, 40-ft tall metal horse. But that’s not what gets the attention of people passing by – rather, it is the 60-ft tall bullhead weighing in at 25 tons. No engineers were involved with the development or installation of these pieces, just a group of friends and family.

“My albino dog, Bambino does the thinking, and I have a pet porcupine that helps. I have the opposable thumbs, and my dog has the brains.” That’s Bambino next to Wayne’s summer home.

I visited Porter Sculpture Park on a hot, cloudless summer afternoon. Earlier in the day, Vivian and I parked the RV in a lovely campground in the middle of a corn field about 12 miles from Wayne’s sculptures. We unhitched the truck from the RV so that I could visit Wayne’s sculptures. As I pulled into the parking area (nothing more than a gravel lot with a rundown trailer on one end and a large shed on the other), I noticed a gentleman working in the shed. When the park is open, Wayne lives on the premises with his dog Bambino. Being the only visitor, I surmised I was about to meet the artist.

“The ballerina is scrubbing the floor, and there are pieces gone from herself. The point there, is your life isn’t complete until you’ve made your last choice.” Wayne Porter
“I always wanted to be in a cartoon. I used to think life was a cartoon.” Wayne Porter
“I have pieces here that are 40 years old. In those days I was into horror movies. I don’t like horror movies anymore, but I got some pieces here I would not do again, but I don’t cut them up, I leave them on the trail because they’re like part of my diary.” Wayne Porter

What makes Porter Sculpture Park special is that every visitor gets to meet the artist when he comes out of the shed to greet you and collect his admission fee. After that, they can spend as much time and take as many pictures as they like. Visitors can also partake in a lively conversation with Wayne who loves to share his stories and insights and sprinkle them with his unique sense of humor. For about an hour and a half, I walked around the field of art taking photographs, reading the poetry and watching the meadowlarks guard their nest inside a blue dragon’s mouth. I also spent about an hour talking with Wayne.

“I love the prairie, I’m from the prairie. I love to hear the meadowlarks, I love to watch the sheep, I like the wind. There’s nothing I don’t like about the prairie except the storms” Wayne Porter

Because of the location of his park, Wayne has the unusual privilege of meeting thousands of people every year because they stop in to view his art. Funny thing, this South Dakotan has never been as far as the Black Hills or Badlands National Park. Yet you get the sense from talking to him that he has the best reason not to – the world comes to him. And there is nothing he enjoys more than sharing his whimsical creations with all that come to view them and if you ask, he will share his whimsical, yet thoughtful philosophies on life and art.

“I use to have a goldfish bowl, and goldfish are so tranquilizing, and people get them, and just watch them swim back and forth, back and forth. So it’s a cheap button, but I like goldfish.” Wayne Porter
“Horses live in my head. Artists are inspired by their biography. Where you come from matters and I’m from cattle and horse country.” Wayne Porter
“Art, no matter what type of art, is about communication, and so that’s the nearest I can come to it.” Wayne Porter
“Dad once asked me, ‘What happened to those car springs?’ And I said, ‘Well dad, I chopped them up and made a sculpture out of them.” Wayne Porter
When asked, “And what are you trying to communicate?”, Porter replied “If I knew that, life would be more clear to me.”

I wandered around Wayne’s sculpture dreamscape in the prairie and talked with him about art, current events, South Dakota and cows. A conversation with Wayne is almost like walking through his Sculpture Park – almost every sentence, like every sculpture entertains you with his beguiling imagination and sense of humor. You never know what will pop up. Before leaving, I told him that I was enchanted with the prairie and wanted to photograph it. He looked over at his cow pasture and recommended I should try to photograph cows.

The short drive on a gravel road from I-90 to Porter Sculpture Park.

The next morning, we continued west on the flat I-90 to Badlands National Park. Along the way, we had one more piece of art to visit. Geographically, South Dakota is split in two by the Missouri River that runs north to south. The difference between the west and east portions of the state goes beyond a time zone – upon crossing the river a traveler enters country that contains several national parks and monuments, and Native American sacred land.

“My intent is for the sculpture to stand as an enduring symbol of our shared belief that all here are sacred and in a sacred place.” Dale Claude Lamphere

Dignity of Earth and Sky is a 50-ft tall and 12-ton statue installed at the Chamberlain Interstate-90 Welcome Center overlooking the Missouri River from its east side. Compared to Wayne Porter’s bullhead, it is mediocre in size – but it is anything but mediocre. Dignity is the creation of South Dakota’s artist laureate Dale Claude Lamphere. During its 2-yr construction, Lamphere called upon three Native American women ages 14, 29 and 55 to serve as models and perfect the face of Dignity, designed to honor the cultures of the Lakota and Dakota people. During the building of Dignity, a group of expert metal fabricators worked with Lamphere who consulted structural engineers, cultural advisors, material suppliers and electrical contractors. How did all this come to be? In celebration of South Dakota’s 125th anniversary into statehood, Norm and Eunabel McKie of Rapid City gifted the $1 million statue to all the people of South Dakota in 2014.

Dignity is made of hundreds of pieces of stainless steel. The star quilt is made of 128 diamond shapes in the color of water and sky. “It’s been well received by the Native community, and by visitors from all over the country. My hope over time is it really gets people to think about the beauty of the native cultures.”
“Dignity represents the courage, perseverance and wisdom of the Lakota and Dakota culture in South Dakota.” Dale Claude Lamphere

In case you are wondering, here are what the roadside art critics say about Dignity on Trip Advisor:

  • “The statue is amazing”
  • “The statue is huge and quite stunning”
  • “It is truly impressive and beautiful”
  • “A wonderful statue in a wonderful setting”
  • “She is beautiful”
  • “Magnificent can’t even describe how beautiful the sculpture is”
  • “The sculpture is superbly done”

Art comes in all forms. It may be inspired by “horses living in my head” or to “serve as a symbol of respect and promise for the future.” From wherever the inspiration comes, what makes it art is the artist. And somewhere along South Dakota’s highway is an artist’s gift to you, by way of a generous donor or a father’s blacksmith shop. On your journey, take the time and experience it. And if you are fortunate enough, you’ll get to meet the artist.

As we continue our travels toward the Badlands and the Black Hills, I’d like to leave you with these thoughts, written by Susan Claussen Bunger, Instructor of Native American social systems.

“As is evident through history, humans will ultimately disillusion and betray. As is such, I have a new role model who is solid and sturdy. She literally owns a spine of steel and reminds me of the injustice in the world, but also the strength, perseverance and survival. She signifies people who have prevailed through the centuries. She represents all who resist and strive forward. She portrays a rallying cry for those who wish to be heard and valued. She stands strong and proud, meeting the morning sun and bracing against the nighttime cold. She contemplates the world through a poise of conviction and fearlessness. Her name is “Dignity”.

June 28, 2020 – Gateway to the Great Plains

The Loess Hills run parallel to the Missouri River on the west side of Iowa, where we stayed at the Lewis and Clark State Park.

The summer of 2020 was a strange time to travel through the red and blue United States. Beyond doing what a pandemic normally does, COVID-19 also managed to saturate those red and blue tones creating an even more distinct dichotomy within the United States. We became poignantly aware of the differences as we traveled through many states that did not impose state-wide mandates to mitigate the spread of the virus. This is not an endorsement of either side of the political spectrum; rather, it is only our observation. In much of these areas, people went about their normal lives, until of course they got sick. But, these states had something going for them – fewer people and plenty of wide open space. And that is where we wanted to be.

Driving through downtown Onawa, Iowa on the widest main street in the U.S.

So, it was no surprise to see a hand-written sign stating “Masks not required” on the door of Onawa, Iowa’s only grocery store. Shortly after setting up our campsite at the Lewis and Clark State Park, we drove a few miles to the little town to pick up some groceries. Known for having the widest main street in the continental United States, Onawa was where the Eskimo Pie was created in 1920 by Chris Nelson who owned an ice cream shop. During World War II, Onawa was the site of a prisoner-of-war camp between 1944 and 46. I am not sure how that came to be, given that no more than 50 POWs lived there at any given time while a nearby town, Algona contained 10 times as many prisoners.

Although Iowa is not ranked #1 in beef or dairy, you do see a lot of cattle.
A typical picturesque scene in the Loess Hills.

Despite its few distinctions, Onawa looks like most rural farm towns in Midwest America, run down with a modest amount of humble pride. Our impression of rural life was not improved after picking up the “Grapevine – Your Hometown Newspaper” where pictures of smiling Onawa High School graduates were displayed. Our thoughts on these young individuals’ futures were overshadowed by the ad pages that were not much more than a list of announcements for alcoholics, narcotics and emotions anonymous meetings, and free counseling for domestic violence or sexual assault victims.

Catching up on the latest news in Onawa.

Ranked #1 in soybean, corn, pork, and egg production, more than 85% of Iowa’s land is farmed. Iowa farms have had their share of bad times, not the least of which is COVID-19. If the virus was not bad enough, the August 2020 Derecho winds dealt another blow across the state destroying many homes and businesses. While the Great Depression left a lasting impression in Iowa including a major population decline, the farm crisis in 1983 was just as devastating. During that year, an average of 500 farms were auctioned per month. With all that, I can understand a little better why the only grocery store in Onawa, Iowa did not have a mask requirement. These people have survived worse times, so an invisible virus was not going to keep them from a normal life.

Driving through the Loess Hills, I came onto this road, not what you might expect in Iowa. The bottom of this unimproved & very steep road is invisible from the top. On the right side is a sign warning drivers to enter at their own risk. I have nightmares about pulling our RV on one of these roads!

Iowa is the only state whose east and west borders are formed entirely by rivers, the Mississippi to the east and the Missouri comprising most of the west border. The Missouri River symbolizes the gateway to the Great Plains and Iowa was our introduction to what lay beyond the western banks of the longest river in the United States. Awaiting us were endless gentle slopes of green, speckled with cattle and interrupted by spectacular red buttes and canyons. But first, we had some exploring to do on the east side of the Missouri.

A satellite image can distinguish the identifiable Loess HIlls topography from the flat prairie. We spent a day hiking within Preparation Canyon State Park, marked by the arrow.

What really brought us to this area was the Loess (pronounced ‘Luss’) Hills. Where northeastern Iowa is characterized by a landscape unaffected by the drift of glaciers, this western part of Iowa has much evidence of glacier-driven formation. Glacier movement grinds rock into silt. Over time, wind deposited the silt along the eastern edge of the Missouri River. The accumulation of wind-blown silt, or loess is what we see today as the Loess Hills, a rare and distinct landscape of flowing green and forested hills. We set out to explore the Loess Hills on the hiking trails within Preparation Canyon State Park. This park got its name from a former community called Preparation, established in the 1850s by Charles B Thompson and his band of followers. The Great Mormon Migration toward the Utah territory began in 1847 and lasted 20 years. Thompson’s group was a small one among the 60,000 Mormons who fled persecution in Illinois.

At the trailhead leading into Preparation Canyon where several primitive campsites are maintained and can be accessed only on foot.
Found this female ichneumon wasp on the trail. The very long tail is not a stinger, rather it is used to deposit eggs. And no, she did not leave eggs on my boot! She prefers wood for that.
One of the first-come-first-serve campsites off the hiking trail. Gentle slopes make it easy for the park service to maintain the trails and campsites with riding lawnmowers.

At some point along the way, Thompson received a message from the “Spirit”. Given the extreme hardships that came with westward migrations, I am guessing he was pretty much over it before arriving at the Great Plains and recognized the area as having good potential for farming. Indeed, the area was known as “Monona”, an Indian name for “Peaceful Valley. As a result of the spirit message received by Thompson, he and 50 or 60 families following him bailed from their wagon trains and organized the town called “Preparation”. This name was an easy one to come by because of their belief that existence in life was merely a preparation for the world to come.

This little one room school located somewhere in the Loess Hills was in use until 1945.

Things were going quite well as the Mormons realized they settled in one of the richest farming valleys in the area. So Thompson did what any corrupt leader would do when in control of the town’s newspaper, he printed the following message written by his imaginary spirit he called ‘Beneemy’, “I appoint Charles B Thompson chief steward of my house to receive, hold, manage and direct all the treasures of my house to him.” Well, people believed Thompson’s fake news and consequently, turned over deeds and all possessions to their leader.

A lookout point gives you a 240 degree view of the Loess Hills.

Not all was peaceful in Peaceful Valley. Thompson’s people eventually wised up and asked him to return their property. This led to a hot dispute which eventually ended in the Iowa Supreme Court. Before that though, angry people organized a lynch mob and when Thompson got wind of that, he fled the state. People got their property back and for a long time thereafter, Preparation flourished. It even had a skating rink at one time. But after the Thompson sham, many discouraged Mormons left the valley and headed out to Utah. By 1946 the town was pretty much deserted. Descendants of the original Mormons eventually sold the land to Iowa.

The Saharan Dust made its way to Iowa, replacing bright blue skies with a dull white light. I converted this to black and white to hide my disappointment.

I remember the lovely green pastures, rolling forested hills and hidden ponds of the Loess Hills, but what stands out the most is the relentless daily temperatures above 90 degrees during our 4-day visit. On our last day, we got a reprieve from the heat by visiting the state park’s museum dedicated to the two explorers from which it is named. People find the most unlikely things to be passionate about, as was the case with the museum volunteer who is a self-proclaimed and self-made Lewis and Clark scholar. And I do mean scholar with the utmost respect. The man was a wealth of information, eager to share it with us. At the very least, the Lewis and Clark expedition has all the ingredients of a great adventure story. Among other insurmountable impasses including the unexpected Rocky Mountains, they traveled thousands of miles upstream on the great Missouri to its headwaters where the Columbia River begins its trek toward the Pacific Ocean.

From satellite images, you can see the U-shape or oxbow formed by the Missouri River. The state park its in the middle of the “U”.

The Lewis and Clark State Park was created on the Blue Lake, which is an oxbow (U-shaped body of water) formed by the Missouri River years ago. Oxbow lakes are created when a wide curvy part of a river (a meander) cuts off to find a shorter course leaving behind a free-standing body of water or an oxbow. Lewis and Clark’s expedition came through here on August 10, 1804. The explorers stayed awhile and recorded several geological and biological observations.

On display at the Lewis and Clark State Park are exact replicas of the boats used by the expedition.

The significance of Lewis and Clark’s expedition can never be understated. The impact it had on the evolution of the newly formed United States can fill a countless number of American history books. The expedition led by two very different men assisted by a Shoshone Indian woman forever altered the U.S. government’s relationship with American Natives, opened up America’s westward expansion of white settlers, created accurate topographical maps of the northwest and contributed to scientific research with its contact with 70 American Native tribes, and detailed descriptions of the geography and more than 200 new plant and animal species.

A Lewis and Clark expedition keel boat (replica).

From their 8000-mile and 2-yr expedition, Lewis and Clark gave the Great Plains a face, a vast and harsh territory between the Missouri River and the ominous Rocky Mountains. The Loess Hills brought the Great Plains into focus during our stay at Lewis and Clark State Park. After that, we began our trek north and eventually west, the beginning of our journey into the Great Plains. From the time we left the state park, it took another day and a half before we crossed the Missouri River on I-90 and entered Mountain time. But, before we made the crossing, we had some art to view. Stay tuned.

RV Tips

Lewis and Clark SP is one of many parks we have stayed for several days without water or sewer hook-up. We prefer not to travel with much water in our fresh tank and will fill up at the campground before setting up. A little research (or a phone call) will let you know if potable water is easily available. It is typically located near the dump station as a separate water source (not the same water that is designated for flushing!). Some parks have additional potable water spigets scattered about the campground as well.